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The Question of Identity: Ethnicity, Language, Religion, and Gender

Before Islam:  Egypt

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Bust of King Neferhotep

Bust of King Neferhotep

This earlier, Middle Kingdom, royal bust again emphasizes the central role of the king in Egyptian civilization. The bust wears typical royal regalia, including a nemes headcloth, a blue and gold striped fabric headcover with lappets on either side of the chest). The uraeus (rearing cobra) displayed on the king’s forehead was, according to texts, a protective deity that spit fire at the pharaoh's enemies.

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