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Empires to Nation States

Islamic Period

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Ottoman Soldiers on Parade Grounds

Ottoman Soldiers on Parade Grounds

This picture of Ottoman soldiers at parade, with its precisely laid out ranks and complete uniformity of dress, shows the extent to which European ideas of military discipline and precision predominated in the Ottoman armed forces by the end of the nineteenth century. Nowhere in the cultures of Islamic empires were European ideas and influences imported in a more undiluted form than among the military. Techniques and the education to support them were learned from European military advisors in order that the Empire maintain parity with their European neighbors, a necessary development in order to successfully defend their territory in armed conflict with European armies.

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