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Empires to Nation-States

Before Islam

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Aerial Photograph of the Great Pyramids at Giza

Aerial Photograph of the Great Pyramids at Giza

The great pyramids at Giza were built as funerary monuments by kings of the 4th Dynasty around 2575-2500 BCE, during Egypt’s Old Kingdom. Pyramids represented royal control of a vast quantity of labor and are enduring symbols of these early kings’ power.

The Egyptian state was founded in perhaps 3100 BCE and lasted for about 1,000 years before it briefly collapsed in a period of instability, only to be re-established in the Middle Kingdom.

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