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The Question of Identity: Ethnicity, Language, Religion, and Gender

Before Islam:  Overview

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Learning Resources

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Primary Sources

“Cursing of Agade, The.” The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature. Link to resourcenew window (accessed May 7, 2010). Contains description of Gutians—tribal group that moved into Mesopotamia as Akkadian empire collapsed.

“Merneptah’s Victory Stele.” Tour Egypt. Link to resourcenew window (accessed May 7, 2010). Ends with listing of foreign lands, peoples conquered by the Egyptian pharaoh, including the earliest mention of people of Israel.

“Sennacherib Prism.” Translation adapted from D. D. Luckenbill. Link to resourcenew window (accessed May 7, 2010). Translation of Akkadian clay prism, bibliography.

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