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Empires to Nation States

Islamic Period

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Cavalry General Liman von Sanders With Ottoman Officers

Cavalry General Liman von Sanders With Ottoman Officers

This image shows a German cavalry general with Ottoman officers around the time of World War I. He is barely distinguishable from the officers around him. The Ottomans and Germans were allies in World War I, but there was also a longstanding relationship between the Ottoman military and German advisors. In the early days of Ottoman military reform it was necessary to hire European military advisors to manage military modernization, as there were no Ottomans with the necessary skills and training to oversee the project. While the advisors initially hired were from several nations, particularly France, over time there developed a close relationship between the Prussian and Ottoman militaries, and German advisors predominated among the Ottoman forces.

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